-> Research Methodology MCQ SET 2

Research Methodology MCQ SET 2

 Research Methodology MCQ SET 2

    Looking to deepen your understanding of research methodology? Dive into our Research Methodology MCQ Set 2, crafted to enhance your knowledge and test your skills. This comprehensive set includes a variety of multiple-choice questions covering essential topics such as research design, data collection, sampling methods, hypothesis testing, and statistical analysis. Whether you're a student preparing for exams, a professional looking to refresh your knowledge, or a researcher aiming to stay updated with best practices, this set is tailored to meet your needs. Challenge yourself with these carefully curated questions and take a step closer to mastering research methodology. Get ready to elevate your learning experience!

Note:- Answers are in Red bold format

Research Methodology MCQ SET 2

31. An empiricist believes that
(a) Natural science methods should not be applied to social science research.
(b) Social science methods cannot be applied in natural sciences.
(c) Knowledge is acquired through our sensory perceptions.
(d) None of the above

32. The experimental study is based on
(a) Law of single variable
(b) Manipulation
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above

33. What is the position held by a positivist as far as acquiring knowledge is concerned?
(a) A general positive attitude towards research.
(b) Scientific research should be based on value-free, empirical observations.
(c) Exact knowledge can be acquired from the society.
(d) None of the above

34. The approach which is based on the assumption that social phenomena can be explained by observing cause and effect is
(a) Positivism
(b) Interpretivism
(c) Qualitative
(d) None of the above

35. An ontological question is usually about
(a) Diagnose of a medical problem
(b) Study of things outside ourselves, an external reality
(c) Use of questionnaires or interviews in project
(d) Acceptable level of knowledge

36. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a researcher?
(a) Industrious and persistent
(b) Specialist rather than a generalist
(c) Objective
(d) Not versatile in his interest and even in his native abilities

37. An important practical issue to consider while designing a research project is
(a) An interesting theoretical perspective
(b) Add to knowledge of researcher only
(c) Availability of time and other resources
(d) None of the above

38. Research can be classified as
(a) Basic, applied, and action research
(b) Quantitative and qualitative research
(c) Philosophical, historical, survey, and experimental research
(d) All of the above

39. The two main approaches of a research are
(a) Data collection and data analysis
(b) Surveys and questionnaires
(c) Sampling and data collection
(d) Qualitative and quantitative

40. A researcher designs an experiment to test how variables interact to influence how well children learn spelling words. In this case, the main purpose of the study is
(a) Explanation 
(b) Description
(c) Influence 
(d) Prediction

41. Qualitative research is
(a) Without any specific purpose
(b) Primarily concerned with in-depth exploration of phenomena
(c) Deals with the collection and analysis of numerical data
(d) None of the above

42. Match List A with List B and choose the correct answer from the code given below.
List I List II
A Historicalmethod I Past events
B Survey method II Vision
C Philosophical method III Present events
D Experimental method IV Future action
(a) A-I, B-III, C-II, D-IV
(b) A-I, B-II, C-III, D-IV
(c) A-I, B-II, C-III, D-IV
(d) A-II, B-III, C-I, D-IV

43. Which of the following research specifically requires objectivity to discover facts and causes from the data gathered for the purpose?
(a) Quantitative research
(b) Fundamental research
(c) Qualitative research
(d) Action research

44. Which of the following is classified in the category of developmental research?
(a) Philosophical research
(b) Action research
(c) Descriptive research
(d) All of the Above

45. In psychology and education, experimental research is also termed as
(a) S–R (stimulus–response) research
(b) Analytical research
(c) Historical research
(d) Post Facto research

46. Which of the following is NOT the method of research? (December 2006)
(a) Observation 
(b) Historical
(c) Survey 
(d) Philosophical

47. Fundamental research is usually carried out in
(a) Classroom
(b) Field setting
(c) Laboratory conditions
(d) Social setting

48. The research that applies the laws at the time of field study to draw more and more clear ideas about the problem is
(a) Applied research
(b) Action research
(c) Experimental research
(d) None of the above

49. The research which is exploring new facts through the study of the past is called
(a) Philosophical research
(b) Historical research
(c) Mythological research
(d) Content analysis

50. The scientific method can be used
(a) Only in physical sciences such as physics and chemistry
(b) Only in social sciences
(c) Both in physical and social sciences
(d) None of the above

51. Action research is 
(a) An applied research
(b) A research carried out to solve immediate problems
(c) A longitudinal research
(d) Simulative research

52. In the method of naturalistic observation, there will be
(a) Haphazard behaviour as it naturally occurs
(b) Setting up of controlled experiments by
which they uncover causal elements in behaviour
(c) Set out to actively observe subjects in their natural environments
(d) Interview subjects at different stages of life

53. Which of the following is a form of explanatory research in which the researcher develops a theoretical model and empirically tests the model to determine how well the model fits the data?
(a) Causal modelling
(b) Predictive research
(c) Descriptive research
(d) Exploratory research

54. Match the following two lists
List I List II
A Experimental I Criticism
B Historical II Control
C Case study III Interpretative
D Ethnography IV Intensive
V Intuitive
(a) A-II, B-III, C-IV, D-V
(b) A-I, B-II, C-V, D-III
(c) A-III, B-I, C-IV, D-V
(d) A-II, B-I, C-IV, D-III

55. One of the aims of scientific method in research is to 
(a) Improve data interpretation
(b) Eliminate spurious relations
(c) Confirm triangulation
(d) Introduce new variables

56. The term ‘phenomenology’ is associated with the process of (December 2010)
(a) Qualitative research
(b) Analysis of variance
(c) Correlational study
(d) Probability sampling

57. Which research approach is the most appropriate to establish a relationship that is causal in nature?
(a) Causal-comparative
(b) Experimental
(c) Correlational
(d) Descriptive

58. The important pre-requisites of a research in sciences, social sciences, and humanities are
(a) Laboratory skills, records, supervisor, and topic
(b) Supervisor, topic, critical analysis, and patience
(c) Archives, supervisor, topic, and flexibility in thinking
(d) Topic, supervisor, good temperament, and preconceived notions

59. Books and records are the primary sources of data in
(a) Historical research
(b) Participatory research
(c) Clinical research
(d) Laboratory research

60. The type of research that tests hypothesis and theories in order to explain how and why a phenomenon operates as it does is
(a) Descriptive research
(b) Predictive research
(c) Explanatory research
(d) None of the above

61. Fundamental research reflects the ability to
(a) Synthesize new ideas
(b) Expound new principles
(c) Evaluate the existing material concerning research
(d) Study the existing literature regarding various topics

62. The classification of studies into exploratory, descriptive, analytical, or predictive research is based on:
(a) Logic 
(b) Outcome
(c) Process 
(d) Purpose

63. The strongest evidence for causality comes from which of the following research methods?
(a) Experimental
(b) Causal–comparative
(c) Correlational
(d) None of the above

64. One of the limitations of the case study is that
(a) There are few subjects for which it is applicable.
(b) There are no control groups
(c) It requires a large and expensive sample size
(d) None of the above

65. Which of the following is research method is termed as controlled observation?
(a) Historical research
(b) Philosophical research
(c) Field experimentation
(d) All of the above

66. Fieldwork-based research is classified as
(a) Empirical 
(b) Historical
(c) Experimental 
(d) Biographical

67. Which of the following is not a longitudinal design?
(a) Panel
(b) Cross-sectional
(c) Trend
(d) Both (a) and (c) are longitudinal designs

68. When a researcher starts with the dependent variable and moves backwards, it is called
(a) Predictive research
(b) Retrospective research
(c) Exploratory research
(d) Descriptive research

69. The study in which investigators attempt to trace an effect is known as
(a) Survey research
(b) ‘Ex post facto’ research
(c) Historical research
(d) Summative research

70. The essence of the experimental method is
(a) Correct calculation of Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of correlation
(b) Obtaining direct reports from subjects about their subjective experience
(c) Careful measurement and record keeping
(d) Using control to identify cause-andeffect connections

71. Which research paradigm is based on the pragmatic view of reality?
(a) Quantitative research
(b) Qualitative research
(c) Mixed research
(d) None of the above

72. Which research paradigm is not much concerned about generalizing its findings?
(a) Quantitative research
(b) Qualitative research
(c) Mixed research
(d) None of the above

73. Which of the following best describes quantitative research?
(a) The collection of non-numerical data
(b) An attempt to confirm the researcher’s hypothesis
(c) Research that is exploratory
(d) Research that attempts to generate a new theory

74. All of the following are common characteristics of experimental research
(a) It relies primarily on the collection of numerical data.
(b) It can produce important knowledge about cause and effect.
(c) It uses the deductive scientific method.
(d) All of the above

75. Which type of research is likely to provide the strongest evidence about the existence of cause-and-effect relationships?
(a) Non-experimental research
(b) Experimental research
(c) Historical research
(d) None of the above

76. Research in which the researcher uses the qualitative paradigm for one phase and the quantitative paradigm for another phase is known as
(a) Action research
(b) Basic research
(c) Quantitative research
(d) Mixed method research

77. Research that is done to understand an event from the past is known as
(a) Experimental research
(b) Historical research
(c) Replication
(d) Archival research

78. The type of research typically conducted by teachers, counsellors, and other professionals to answer questions they have and to specifically help them solve local problems?
(a) Action research
(b) Basic research
(c) Predictive research
(d) Longitudinal research

79. Which form of reasoning is the process of drawing a specific conclusion from a set of premises?
(a) Rationalism
(b) Deductive reasoning
(c) Inductive reasoning
(d) Probabilistic

80. Research that is done to examine the findings of someone else using the ‘same variables but different people’ is which of the following?
(a) Exploration 
(b) Hypothesis
(c) Replication 
(d) Empiricism

81. Which scientific method is a top-down or confirmatory approach?
(a) Deductive method
(b) Inductive method
(c) Hypothesis method
(d) Pattern method

82. Which scientific method is a bottom-up or generative approach to research?
(a) Deductive method
(b) Inductive method
(c) Hypothesis method
(d) Pattern method

83. The method of drawing conclusions based on the observation of each and every instance of a population is called
(a) Scientific Method
(b) Deductive Method
(c) Inductive Method
(d) Dialectic Method

84. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good theory or explanation?
(a) It is parsimonious.
(b) It is testable.
(c) It is general enough to apply to different situations.
(d) All of the above

85. Which scientific method follows these steps: 
(i) observation/data, (ii) patterns, and (iii) theory?
(a) Inductive
(b) Deductive
(c) Top-down
(d) None of the above

86. Which scientific method is a top-down or confirmatory approach?
(a) Deductive method
(b) Inductive method
(c) Hypothesis method
(d) Pattern method

87. Which of the following terms can be associated with research in social sciences?
(a) Causal research
(b) Empirical research
(c) Correlational research
(d) All of the above

88. Which scientific method focuses on testing hypothesis developed from theories?
(a) Deductive method
(b) Inductive method
(c) Hypothesis method
(d) Pattern method

89. Which scientific method focuses on generating new hypothesis and theories?
(a) Deductive method
(b) Inductive method
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above

90. Which research method is most appropriate if a researcher is looking for a causal relationship?
(a) Experimental method
(b) Case study
(c) Correlational study
(d) Naturalistic observation

91. A field experiment is one that takes place in
(a) Real world
(b) Laboratory
(c) Both in real world and laboratory
(d) Naturalistic environment

92. Characteristics of the scientific method necessarily include
(a) Lab experiments only
(b) Controlled observation
(c) Analysis formulation
(d) All of the above 

93. A correlational study determines
(a) The relationship between independent and dependent variable.
(b) Impact of the observer on the participant
(c) Cause-and-effect relationship
(d) The relationship between two events

94. The qualitative research is usually
(a) Deductive in nature
(b) Inductive in nature
(c) Deductive or inductive in nature
(d) None of the above

95. Which of the following types of research is associated with theory generating?
(a) Inductive research
(b) Deductive research
(c) Both inductive and deductive
(d) None of the above

96. Which of the following types of research is associated with theory testing?
(a) Inductive research
(b) Deductive research
(c) Both inductive and deductive
(d) None of the above

97. A non-government organization conducted a study in a Gram Panchayat to see the impacts of campaign approach on enrolment and retention of rural elementary school children. This is an example of
(a) Descriptive Study
(b) Field Experiment
(c) Ex-post facto research
(d) Historical Research

98. The classification of studies into exploratory, descriptive, analytical, or predictive research is based on
(a) Logic of the research
(b) Outcome of the research
(c) Process of the research
(d) Purpose of the research

99. Research study that take place over a long period of time is termed as
(a) Cross-sectional research
(b) Longitudinal research
(c) Research methodology
(d) None of the above

100. The main difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional researches is in terms of
(a) Frequency of data collection
(b) Primary versus Secondary
(c) The qualification of researcher
(d) None of the above

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